North Caroii^ Stete b^ary-
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
R. Bruce Etheridge, Director
A REPRINT FROM
GEOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY
Part III — BOTANY
TREES, SHRUBS AND WOODY VINES
By Rev. M. A. Curtis, D.D.
CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT
FORESTRY AND PARKS
W. K. Beichler, State Forester
price ten cents
BOARD OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT*
Governor R. Gregg Cherry, Chairman
FOR A TWO YEAR TERM
Josh L. Horne, Rocky Mount
W. J. Damtoft Canton
W. Roy Hampton Plymouth
A. H. Guion Charlotte
Charles S. Allen Durham
FOR A FOUR YEAR TERM
K. Clyde Council Wananish
J. Wilbur Bunn Raleigh
Dr. J. D. Rudisill** -_1_- — — - - Lenoir
A. K. Winget ..„ Albemarle
Percy B. Ferebee Andrews
FOR A SIX YEAR TEI
Oscar P. Breece .1 Fayetteville
D. M. Stafford Greensboro
R. Floyd Crouse Sparta
Miles J. Smith Salisbury
J. R . Wollett Littleton
R. Bruce Etheridge, Director
*Appointed by Governor Cherry, June 2nd, 1945.
**Died July 28, 1945.
R. W. Proctor, Marion, appointed August 1, 1945, to succeed him.
Dr. Joseph Austin Holmes, in his paper "Historical Notes
Concerning the North Carolina Geological Surveys, published in
The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 1889, states
that there were three North Carolina State surveys that have
been called geological surveys: (1) the "Geological and Min-
eralogical Survey," conducted by Professors Denison Olmsted
and Elisha Mitchell (1824-'28), termed the Olmsted-Mitchell
survey; (2) the "Geological, Mineralogical, Botanical and Agri-
cultural Survey, "prosecuted under Professor Ebenezer Emmons
(1852-'61 or '64), called the Emmons Survey; and (3) the
"Geological, Mineralogical, Botanical and Agricultural Survey,
"prosecuted under Professor W. C. Kerr (1866-'85), termed the
Kerr survey. The last mentioned of these may be considered
in part a continuation of the second." The fourth "geological
Survey" began in 1891 and was in charge of Dr. Holmes himself,
as State Geologist. It continued until 1905 when it was re-
organized by the General Assembly into the fifth survey, legally
termed the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. Dr.
Joseph Hyde Pratt, an expert in what might be called the Holmes
Survey, was appointed State Geologist. He retained direction of
that survey until 1924 when its offices were removed from Chapel
Hill to the State Capitol. Up until this time all of the men in
charge of these surveys were professors at the University and
their offices were in a university building.
The General Assembly of 1925, in creating the Department of
Conservation and Development, gave as its first object "To take
over the powers and duties exercised by the State Geological
and Economic Survey, the State Geological Board and the State
Geologist." Thus, reports of these previous surveys became the
inheritance of the present Department of Conservation and
Development and it becomes the privilege of this Department to
make available to the inquiring public such useful information
collected by these surveys as may be of interest and value to the
people of the State.
The second, or Emmons Survey, called for "a survey of every
county to ascertain, among other things, the character and value
of its botanical productions; the character and value of its
timber; and all other facts connected with the subjects of geology
and mineralogy, botany, and agriculture which may tend to a
full development of the resources of the State." An annual
appropriation of $5,000 was made for its support. The man
employed by Dr. Emmons to carry out the "botanical" survey
was one who was already familiar with the* "botanical produc-
tion" of every part of North Carolina, the Rev. M. A. Curtis,
rector of the Episcopal Church at Hillsboro, N. C. His pecuniary
compensation was $500 per annum for the years 1859 to 1865.
Moses Ashley Curtis was born May 11, 1808, at Stockbridge,
Mass., the son of the Rev. Jared Curtis. His mother was Thank-
ful Ashley, daughter of Gen. Moses Ashley. A graduate of
Williams College (1827) he came to Wilmington in 1830 as tutor
in the family of Governor Dudley. In December 1834 he married
Mary DeRosset of Wilmington and a year later was ordained a
minister in the Episcopal Church. After three years' missionary
work out from Lincolnton, N. C. and two years teaching in
Raleigh, he spent a year in our mountains on account of his
health. Then after a short period of mission work at Wash-
ington, N. C. he removed early in 1841 to Hillsboro where he
lived until his death in 1872, except for the years 1847-56 when
he took the pastorate at Society Hill, S. C. Practically his only
publication, outside of articles in the scientific press, were "The
Woody Plants of North Carolina," (1860) of which this "Shrubs
and Vines of North Carolina" was the latter part; the first part
dealt with the "Trees of North Carolina." His studies, however,
extended to all plant life and greatly extended our knowledge of
the fungi, lichens, liverworts, etc. Donald C. Peattie, in sum-
marizing his biological sketch of Dr. Curtis, in the Dictionary
of American Biography, says : "Like the evolution controversy
the great military conflict (the War between the States) seems
scarcely to have touched his tranquil nature, given as it was to
religion and science which for him transcended all animosities,"
and Thomas F. Wood, in his paper on Dr. Curtis, read before the
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society May 22, 1885, quoted this very
pertinent verse : "For him the earth was crammed with Heaven,
and every common bush afire with God."
In recommending the publication of this old report, it is rea-
lized that changes have taken place in the classification and
scientific nomenclature* of our native plants but the common
names have changed very little. Since no recent book on North
Carolina shrubs can now be had, it seems wise to make available
this painstaking and popularly written report until something
else is available. "Common Forest Trees of North Carolina,"
published by this Department, and the much more adequate
books, "Trees of the Southeastern States," by Coker and Totten,
and "Trees of the South," by Charlotte Hilton Green, already
supply information on the trees of the state. There has for some
time been under preparation a book on the shrubs of the state
by members of the State University staff. It is felt that this
present edition of this report will fill in the period until such a
new and up-to-date book becomes available.
The reader is herewith assured that no changes have been
made in the text of this list; it is just as Dr. Curtis wrote it and
the State published it eighty-five years ago; a report that in-
spired the writer of the above lines to study the woody plants
of his adopted State.
John Simcox Holmes,
♦Nomenclature throughout follows "Chapman's Flora of the Southeastern
States," first edition.
Devil's Shoe Strings
New Jersey Tea
Old Man's Beard _
Pepper, Mountain _
Pepper, Sweet 20
Poison Oak 15
Poison Vine 36
Pond Bush 13
Prickly Ash 13 23
Queen of the Meadow 23
Red Haws 5
Red Root 24
Rock Rose ' 28
Rose Locust 1
Sarsaparilla, Big 37
Sheep Berry 12
Spanish Bayonet 15
Spice Bush 13
Stagger Bush 17
Strawberry Bush 22
Supple Jac& 35
Sweet Brier 11
Sweet Fern 25
Sweet Leaf 4
Sweet Shrub 27
Tangle Legs _l 12
Thorn Tree 5
Toothache Tree 23
Trailing Arbutus 29
Trefoil, Shrubby 26
Trumpet Flower 3 6
Virginia Creeper 33
Virgin's Bower 36 38
Wax Work 37
Wayfarer's Tree 12
Wicky i 20
Wild Appslice 13
Wild Ginger 37
Willow, Gray 4
Willow, Bush 5
Willow, Silky-leaved _ 5
Witch Hazel 25
Yellow Root 24
Yellow Wood 4
EW OF THE SPECIES
Arranged according to the character of their fruit.
Fleshy Fruit —
Plums, Fringe Tree, Oil Nut.
Papaws, Spanish Bayonet, Bear Grass,, Roses.
Red Haws, Barberry, Bermuda Mulberry, Huckleberry,
Creeping Huckleberry, Bearberry, Cranberry, Elder,
Coral Berry, Chokeberry, Yopon, Dahoon Holly, Sumach,
Poison Oak, Flowering Raspberry, Mountain Tea, Spice
. Bush, Pond Bush, Leather Wood, (Ilex)*.
Black or Blue :
Black Haws, Gallberries, Dogwoods, Privet, Carolina Buck-
thorn, Prickly Ash, Elder, Dwarf Palmetto, Gooseberries,
Currants, Huckleberries, Sparkleberry, Blackberries,
Mistletoe, Deerberry, Dogwoods.
Dry Fruit —
Witch Hazel, Button Bush, Dwarf Alder, Wax Myrtle, Sweet
Tassels and Cones:
Willows, Alder, Arbor Vitae.
Bladder Nut, Sweet Shrub.
Flat and Winged:
Maples, Hop Tree.
Marsh Elder, Groundsel.
Reed or Cane.
Dry Capsules —
Laurel, Ivy, Wicky, Honeysuckles, Dog,; Laurel, Fetter Bush,
Pepper Bush, Stagger Bush (Andromeda), (Cassandra),
(Leucothoe), Sweet Pepper Bush, (Itea), Sand Myrtle,
He Huckleberry, False Heath, Syringa, Hydrangea, Hard-
hack, Queen of the Meadow, Bush Honeysuckle, Straw-
berry Bush, Burning Bush, Trailing Arbutus, (Hud-
sonia), Swamp Loosestrife, Toothache Tree, Indigo Bush,
Mock Orange, (Stuartia), (Stillingia), (Darbya), (Buck-
leya), Red Root, Yellow Root, Rock Rose (Ascyrum),
*N.B. — Plants without a popular name are enclosed in parentheses and will
be found also in the Index.
Grapes, Woodbine, Bamboo, Poison Vine, (Cocculus).
Grapes, China Root, Bamboo, Sarsaparilla, Virginia Creeper,
Rattan, Moonseed, (Sageretia), (Berchemia).
Trumpet Flower, Cross Vine, Jessamine, Virgin's Bower,
Bittersweet, Wild Ginger, (Decumaria).
Naked and Feathered Seeds —
Virgin's Bower, (Atragene).
THE SHRUBS OF NORTH CAROLINA
Chinquapin Oak. (Quercus prinoides, Willd.) — Sometimes
called Dwarf Chestnut Oak. Its foliage is somewhat like that of
the Rock Chestnut Oak, and also has some likeness to that of the
Chinquapin, which gives it its common name. It is a mere shrub,
2 to 4 feet high, of no value, and is here mentioned only to give a
complete view of the genus. It is found very sparingly in the
Lower District, but is not uncommon upon poor soils in the upper
parts of the State.
Bear Oak. (Q. ilicifolia, Wang.) — A. shrub, ordinarily about
3 to 5 feet high, extending from New Yorki southward through
the mountains of Virginia (where it is common) and North
Carolina (very rare), to Georgia. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches
long, cut about half way to the middle nerve into two divisions on
each side, and with a white down on the underside. Worthless
in itself, but a good indicator of barren soil.
Chinquapin. (Castanea pumila, Michx.) — This extends from
the Delaware throughout the South. In this State it is known
from the seaboard to Cherokee, and in great varieties of soil. It
is usually a shrub from 6 to 12 feet high, but in cool fertile
situations it is sometimes 30 or 40, and 12 or 18 inches in diame-
ter. The wood is finer grained than the Chestnut and equally
durable ; but the stock is too small for extensive use.
There is a distinct variety of this (var: nana) in our poor
forests with slender shoots and extensive runners, bearing fruit
at the height of a foot.
Rose Locust. (Robinia hispida, Linn.) — A well-known orna-
mental shrub of our gardens, (sometimes known by the singular
misnomer of Rose of Sharon,) with large, deep rose-colored blos-
soms, bristly branches, flower-stems, and pods. It is indigenous
to the rocky summits of mountains and hills in the Upper and
Middle Districts; and a dwarf variety, in the Pine barrens of
Mountain Maple. (Acer spicatum, Lam.) — This has nearly
the same range in the country with the Striped Maple. In this
State it is found only in the Mountains, and is also a shrub 6 to
10 feet high. From its insignificance it does not seem to have
attracted sufficient attention to acquire a popular name ; but is
known farther north by the above, and also as Low Maple. Euro-
peans, who have paid far more attention than ourselves to the
uses and capacities of our forest productions, have ascertained
that this and the Striped Maple acquire double their natural size
2 The Shrubs of North Carolina
when engrafted on other species of Maple.' Its leaves and fruit
have the common characters of a Maple, the latter being rather
Dahoon Holly. (Ilex Dahoon, Walt.) — A shrub or small
tree from 6 to 25 feet high, growing on the borders of the Pine-
barren ponds and swamps of our Low Country, from Virginia to
Florida. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, 14 to 1/2 inch wide,
entire, or with a few sharp teeth near the upper end, evergreen.
The berries are red, as in the Holly and Yopon, and the plant is
well worthy of cultivation.
Yopon. (I. Cassine, Linn.) — An elegant shrub, 10 to 15 feet
high, but sometimes rising into a small tree of 20 to 25 feet. Its
native place is near salt water, and it is found from Virginia
southward, but never far in the interior. Its dark evergreen
leaves and bright red berries make it very ornamental in yards
and shrubberies. The leaves are small, 1/2 "to 1 inch long, very
smooth, and evenly scalloped on the edges with small rounded
teeth. In some sections of the Lower District, especially in the
region of the Dismal Swamp, these are annually dried and used
for tea, which is, however, oppressively sudorific, — at least to one
not accustomed to it. The Mate, or Paraguay Tea, of South
America, is of the same genus as this, (the I. Paraguay ensis,)
but a very different species. Our Yopon is the article from which
the famous Black Drink of the Southern Indians was made. "At
a certain time of the year they come down in droves from a dis-
tance of some hundred miles to the coast for the leaves of this
tree. They make a fire on the ground, and putting a great kettle
of water on it, they throw in a large quantity of these leaves,
and setting themselves around the fire, from a bowl that holds
about a pint they begin drinking large draughts, which in a short
time occasions them to vomit freely and easily. Thus they con-
tinue drinking and vomiting for the space of two or three days,
until they have sufficiently cleansed themselves; and then every
one taking a bundle of the tree, they all retire to their habi-
(I. decidua, Walt.) — This and the next three have deciduous
leaves, and have not been honored in this State, as far as I know,
with popular names. This is common along shaded ravines and
branches throughout the Middle District, and is from 6 to 15
feet high. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, with rounded teeth
on the edges, narrow and tapering down in to a short stem, some-
what hairy on the veins of the underside, otherwise smooth.
Berries red, in clusters, each containing 4 to 6 bony seeds, that
are ribbed on the back.
(I. ambigua, Chapm.) — A shrub or small tree confined to our
mountain region in this State, though found elsewhere to the
The Shrubs of North Carolina 3
North and South, and from 8 to 20 feet high. The leaves are 3 to
5 and sometimes 6 inches long, about half as broad, with fine
sharp teeth on the edges, smooth on both sides, and tapering at
the upper end. The berries are red, not in clusters, and with
seeds as in I. decidua.
(I. verticillata, Gray.) — This occurs in all the Districts, and in
various soils, 2 to 10 feet high, and has clusters of bright scarlet
berries which hang on through the Winter. In some States it is
called Winterberry. The leaves are about 2 inches long, of vary-
ing width, but generally broader toward the upper end, coarsely
toothed, paler and somewhat downy on the underside. The seeds
are smooth and even. A decoction of the bark is a popular appli-
cation to old sores.
Gallberry. (I. glabra, Gray.) — This and the next species are
evergreen shrubs, indiscriminately called by the above name,
sometimes Galls, more rarely Inkberries, names apparently de-
rived from their black bitter berries. This is from 3 to 5 feet
high, very common in the Branch swamps of the Lower District,
and giving its name of Galls or Gallbays to the low places chiefly
occupied by it. The leaves are very smooth and green, sparingly
toothed, 1 to IV2 inch long, and about half that width.
Tall Gallberry. (I. coriacea, Chapm.) — This grows in
similar situations with the preceding, having the same habit and
appearance, but full twice as large, the leaves also much larger,
and either entire or with scattered sharp teeth.
Swamp Dogwood. (Cornus sericea, Linn.) — This and the re-
maining species of the genus are only shrubs, but are placed here
for the purpose of having all the species of a genus together, as
I have done in other genera. With the exception of the last
species, they all have their leaves opposite, as in the Dogwood.
This is the only one of them which has received notice enough in
this State, so far as I have discovered, to get a name. It is
found in low woods in the Middle and Upper Districts, has pur-
plish branches, is from 6 to 10 feet high, and having rather
broad, pointed leaves, which are smooth above and with a silky
down beneath. The flowers are white, in flat-topped clusters,
succeeded by pale-blue berries.
(C. stricta, Linn.) — This is 6 to 15 feet high, with brownish or
reddish branches, found only in the wet lands of the Lower
District . The leaves are about 3 inches long and 1 inch wide,
tapering to a point at the upper end, the edges slightly uneven,
smooth on both sides, paler and with prominent veins on the
underside. The flowers and pale-blue berries are much as in
4 The Shrubs of North Carolina
(C. paniculata, L'Her.) — A branching shrub, 4 to 8 feet high,
with gray branches, found in this State only in our mountain
counties. The leaves are only 2 to 3 inches long, with a tapering
point, smooth, whitish on the underside. The white flowers are
in longer and looser clusters than in the two preceding, and the
(C. alternifolia, L'Her.) — I have met with this only on the
higher mountains. It is the only one of this genus of Cornels —
this being the common name of the shrubby Dogwoods — which
has the leaves alternating on the branches, instead of being oppo-
site to each other in pairs. It is 10 to 15 and 20 feet high, the
branches also alternate, greenish, streaked with white. The
leaves are about 3 inches long, hoary and slightly hairy beneath,
and pointed at the end. The flowers are whitish, in a loose flat
topped cluster ; the berries dark blue or bluish black.
Dwarf Palmetto. (Sabal Adansonii, Guerns.) — This is but
3 or 4 feet high, never forming a trunk, and found only in the
Lower District. The leaves are employed in the manufacture of
Yellow Wood. (Symplocos tinctoria, L'Her.) — Also called
Siveet Leaf and High Bush Laurel. It does not extend much, if
anjr, north of James River. In this State it occurs from the
coast to the mountains, but is most multiplied in the Lower
District. In poor soils it is only a shrub 2 to 6 feet high ; but in
those which are fertile, as on the borders of swamps, it becomes
a small tree, 20 to 25 feet high and 6 to 8 inches in diameter. If
the trunk be wounded in Spring, it exudes a milky, offensive
juice. The leaves, which are 3 to 5 inches long, are sweet to the
taste but rather dry, and greedily eaten by cattle and deer in
Winter. They afford, by decoction, a beautiful yellow color,
which is fixed by a little alum, wherewith cotton, woolen and
silk, are dyed. It is not much used, however. The fruit is a
small one-seeded berry. The wood is soft and valueless.
Choke Berry. (Pyrus arbutifolia, Linn.)^ — A mere shrub 2
to 3 feet high, introduced here only to complete an account of
the genus. The fruit is berrylike, as in the Mountain Ash, but
has the same structure as an apple, with seeds of the same ap-
pearance and taste. It grows in small clusters, and is rather dry
and astringent. We have two varieties of this : — one, with a red
or purple fruit, found on the borders of branches and bays in the
Middle and Lower Districts; — the other, in the mountains, and
having a purplish-black fruit.
Gray Willow. (Salix tristis, Ait.) — A shrub 1 to 2 feet high,
very much branched, of a dull gray aspect on account of the
young branches and leaves being covered with an ash-colored
The Shrubs of North Carolina 5
down or wool. The leaves are from 1 to 1*4 inch long with a
hardly perceptible stem, narrow, sharp at each end, but tapering
from the base towards the upper end, and with the veins prom-
inent on the underside. I have met with this insignificant plant
only in the mountain counties.
Bush Willow. (S. humilis, Marsh.) — Larger than the pre-
ceding, 2 to 4 feet high, but of similar general aspect, the leaves
two or three times longer and broader, and found both in the
Middle and Upper Districts, rarely in the Lower. During Sum-
mer the branches of this and Gray Willow have cone-like ex-
crescences on their ends.
Silky-Leaved Willow. (S. sericea, Marsh.) — This is 3 to 6
feet high, with leaves 2 to 3 inches long, fyorne on conspicuous
stems, pale, and with silky hairs on the underside.
RED HAWS. — Thorny shrubs, sometimes tree-shaped, with
white flowers, mostly in flat topped clusters, and colored
(generally red) fruit containing 1 to 5 bony seeds.
1. Scarlet Haw. (Crataegus coccinea, Linn.) — Grows in the
Middle and Upper Districts, 6 to 12 feet high, with stout thorns
1 and 2 inches long. The leaves are smooth and thin, about 2
inches long and broad, cut into several small segments on each
side. The fruit is bright red, V2 i ncn or more long, and eatable.
2. Washington Thorn. (C. cordata, Ait.) — I have seen this
only in the Middle District. It is a very beautiful shrub when in
blossom, as may be seen on the Cape Fear near Averasboro in
May. It is from 10 to 20 feet high, the thorns about 2 inches
long, and rather slender. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, cut
into 3 divisions somewhat like those of the Red Maple. The fruit
is bright crimson, about Vi inch long.
3. Parsley-Leaved Haw. (C. apiifolia, Michx.) — This, so
closely resembling the Hawthorn of England, is found in the
Lower and Middle Districts. The leaves are about 1 inch long,
and much cut up into small divisions, from which this handsome
shrub or small tree derives its name, and by which it is easily
distinguished from all the other species. The fruit is red and
about 14 i ncn long.
4. Cockspur Thorn. (C. Crus-galli, Linn.) — The most
abundant of our Thorns or Haivs, and found in all the Districts.
It is 10 to 20 feet high and armed with sharp thorns 2 inches or
more long. The leaves are about 2 inches long, rather thick and
stiff, shining green above, somewhat tapering from the upper
part downward, and toothed above the middle. The fruit is red,
about 1/3 inch long. This is our best species for hedging. But it
6 The Shrubs of North Carolina
should be remembered that none answers well if left at random
to an upward growth, and is not well laid and so regularly trim-
med or cut in as to take a lateral growth and to branch freely-
near the ground.
5. Black Thorn. (C. tomentosa, Linn.)— A shrub or small
tree in the Middle and Upper Districts, with large clusters of
flowers, which are % inch or more broad, and a round or pear-
shaped, edible fruit, which is orange-red and about % inch long.
The leaves are 3 to 5 inches long, of an oval or oblong form, finely
toothed and sometimes cut at the summit, somewhat hairy on
the underside, and more or less furrowed along the veins above.
There is a form of this (var : punctata, Gray) very common on
the tops of our mountains, with the leaves smaller, more nar-
rowed towards the base, and the furrows on the upper surface
deeper, and the veins more prominent beneath. The fruit is
round, yellowish or dull red, sprinkled with whitish dots.
6. Narrow-Leaved Thorn. (C. spathulata, Michx.) — Not un-
common in the Lower and Middle Districts, 10 to 15 feet high,
with quite small flowers and fruit, but rather ornamental. The
leaves are smooth and shining, 1/2 to IV2 inch long, 14 to 1/2 inch
wide, toothed at the upper end and tapering from near the top
down to the stem. The fruit is red and in numerous clusters,
7. Summer Haw. (C. flava, Ait.) — A small tree 15 to 20 feet
high, in sandy woods, with fruit 1/2 to % inch thick, pear-shaped,
and greenish-yellow. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, wedge-
shaped, the lower part tapering into a short stem with small dark
glands on the edges. The flowers but from 2 to 5 in a cluster.
8. Hairy Thorn. (C. glandulosa, Michx.) — A small tree with
coarse bark and spreading branches, and the leaves, branchlets
and flower stems covered with soft hairs, especially when young.
The leaves are about 1 inch long, rather thickish, wedge-shaped,
the edges generally dotted with dark glands. The fruit is small,
round, and red. The flowers are 3 to 6 in a cluster.
9. Dwarf Thorn. (C. parvifolia, Ait.) — A small shrub 2 to
5 feet high, very common in sandy woods throughout the Lower
and Middle Districts, and with a whitish down on most of its
parts. The leaves are % to l 1 /? inch long, broad, wedge-shaped,
toothed, with hardly any stem. Flowers solitary, or 2 or 3 to-
gether. Fruit round or pear-shaped, greenish-yellow, rather
large and dry.
Barberry. (Berberi-s Canadensis, Pursh.) — Found in Lincoln,
thence westward, especially in Buncombe, Haywood and Macon
Counties. It is not known to exist north of Virginia, and is the
only native Barberry in the United States. The European species
The Shrubs of North Carolina 7
(B. vulgaris) is thoroughly naturalized in New England. Ours
is a pretty shrub, 2 to 4 feet high and somewhat prickly. The
fruit is an oblong, red and acid berry, which makes an agreeable
conserve, and a cooling drink in fevers. The leaves are also
slightly acid. It is probable that this, like the European species,
which it closely resembles, would furnish a yellow color by boil-
ing the roots in lye ; and that the inner bark of the stems would
dye linen of a fine yellow with the assistance of alum.
GOOSEBERRIES AND CURRANTS.— These belong to one
genus, but are distinguished — the former, by the small sharp
thorns at the base of the leaves, sometimes the fruit being
prickly, and generally (always in the North Carolina species)
by the flower stems having from 1 to 3 flowers ; the latter, by the
absence of thorns, smaller fruit (never prickly), and the flowers
numerous in long clusters. They are found only in the moun-
1. Prickly Gooseberry. (Ribes Cynosbati, Linn.) — Dis-
tinguished from the others by its prickly fruit, which is brownish
when ripe, and eatable.
2. Smooth Gooseberry. (R. rotundifolium, Michx.) — This
is 3 to 4 feet high, the leaves 1 to 2 inches broad, about half the
size of the preceding, the fruit small, purple when ripe, and of
3. Slender Gooseberry. (R. gracile, Michx.) — Very similar
to No. 2, but every way more slender and delicate, and quite rare.
4. Fetid Currant. (R. prostratum, L'Her.) — Occurring
chiefly upon rocks on our highest mountains and generally
spreading on the ground. The berry is covered with bristles and
is not pleasant flavored. The whole plant exhales a disagreeable
musky odor, which will readily distinguish it.
5. Bristly Currant. (R. resinosum, Pursh.) — This was dis-
covered in our mountains by Fraser. I have not myself met with
it. It is covered in every part, not excepting the fruit, with
resinous glandular hairs, by which it may be recognized.
HUCKLEBERRIES.— The fruit so called in this State is com-
prised in two genera; the first (Gaylussacia) including those
which have a black or blackish berry, and leaves generally cov-
ered with small glandular dots; the second (Vaccinium) includ-
ing those with a blue, red or greenish berry. The blue ones are
known in some States as Blueberries or Bilberries. The red are
Cranberries. The greenish one is in this State called Gooseberry
1. Blue Huckleberry. (Gaylussacia frondosa, Torr. and
Gr.) — Common in the Lower and Middle Districts on the borders
8 The Shrubs of North Carolina
of low grounds, 2 to 3 feet high, with pale,' somewhat wrinkled
leaves, which are whitish underneath, and 1 to 3 inches long. The
berries are dark blue, large and sweet, perhaps the finest flavored
we have, ripening in June.
2. Dwarf Huckleberry. (G. dumosa, Torr. and Gr.) — A low
species about a foot high, with creeping roots, very common in
dry woods of the Lower and Middle Districts. It is somewhat
hairy and glandular, the leaves broad, wedge-shaped, green on
both sides, and the fruit smooth, black and insipid. A larger
form of this (var: hirtella) has the berries also hairy.
3. Black Huckleberry. (G. resinosa, T. and Gr.) — Belongs
to the Middle and Upper Districts, 2 to 3 feet high and much
branched. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, and thickly
sprinkled with resinous atoms. The berries are black, shining
and very pleasant. There is a white variety of this, found in
the mountains by Mr. Buckley.
4. Bear Huckleberry. Bearberry. (G. ursina, Gray.) — ■
Found in the sides of the mountains south of the French Broad
River, 2 to 3 feet high, and resembling No. 3. But in the latter
the flowers are cylindrical; in the Bearberry cup-shaped. The
berry is purplish or dark red, insipid and dry, ripening in July
1. Swamp Huckleberry. (Vaccinium corymbosum, Linn). —
Abundant in swampy grounds of the Lower and Middle Districts,
and probably extending into the Upper. It is from 5 to 10 feet
high, with very variable leaves, but generally thin, pale and
smooth. The berries are large, deep blue, subacid and pleasant,
ripening in May and June.
There is a variety of this (var: atrococcum, Gray), having a
similar range and locality and size, but much less common, with
thicker leaves, which are white-downy underneath, and with
berries dark blue. Dr. Hunter finds this variety with a white
berry in Lincoln and Burke Counties.
2. Pale Dwarf Blueberry. (V. Constablsei, Gray.) — About
1 foot high, abundant on the bald summit of Roan Mountain
(where it was first discriminated by Prof. Gray,) and not un-
likely on others. It is of a pale whitish aspect, with leaves 1 to
2 inches long, and blue sweet berries.
3. (V. tenellum, Ait.) — Common on the borders of small
swamps in the Lower District and extending somewhat into the
Middle; about 2 feet high, with green, angled branches. The
leaves are 1/2 to- 1 inch long, narrow, wedge-shaped, slightly
toothed at the top, and of a bright green. Berries black, small,
of little worth.
The Shrubs of North Carolina 9
4. Bristly Huckleberry. (V. hirsutum, Buckley.) — Dis-
covered in the Cherokee Mountains by Mr. Buckley, and easily
recognized by its bristly branches, leaves, flowers and fruit.
5. Deerberry. Gooseberry. (V. stamineum, Linn.) — Very
common all over the State in dry woods, 1 to 4 feet high, and very
pretty when in blossom. The berries -are greenish-white, sour
and astringent, larger than any other of our Huckleberries.
6. (V. erythrocarpon, Michx.) — A shrub 2 to 4 feet high,
found upon Grandfather, Flat Top and Roan Mountains. The
leaves are rather hairy and with small teeth on the edges. The
flowers have long divisions that are rolled backwards precisely
like those of the Cranberry. The fruit is small, reddish or pur-
plish, and insipid, somewhat like that of the Bearberry.
7. Sparkleberry. (V. arboreum, Michx.) — Found from the
coast to Cherokee, 8 to 20 feet high, the leaves smooth, rather
stiff and shining. They are evergreen, at least in the Lower
District. The fruit is black and small, dry, granular and slightly
astringent, but of pleasant flavor, ripening in October. When in
blossom it is quite a showy shrub. The bark of the root is very
astringent, and is used in chronic dysentery.
8. Creeping Huckleberry. (V. crassifolium, Andr.) — A
small species with stems (1 to 2 feet long) creeping close upon
the earth in wet savannas of the Lower District. The leaves are
small, Vi to 14 i ncft long, evergreen, thick and shining. The
fruit is red, becoming black, tasteless.
9. Cranberry. (V. macrocarpon, Ait.) — A small trailing
plant with pale evergreen leaves, common in the mountain
swamps of Ashe and Yancey, and also in Pasquotank, Hyde and
other counties in the north-eastern part of the State. The fine
acid fruit of this plant is well known and universally esteemed.
Coral Berry. (Symphoricarpus vulgaris, Michx.) — A small
shrub, 2 to 3 feet high, frequent in arid gravelly soils, especially
by road sides, throughout the Middle District. The leaves are
rather stiff, about 1 inch long, downy beneath. The flowers are
of no beauty, but the compact clusters of dark red berries in the
fork of nearly all the leaves, and which hang on through the
Winter, have made it an object of attention among gardeners and
florists. This is sometimes so much of a nuisance on plantations,
on account of its creeping tangled roots, as to have gained the
uncouth name of Devil's shoe-strings.
Bermuda or French Mulberry. (Callicarpa Americana,
Linn.)— Quite common in light soils and dry, open woods of the
Lower District, especially along fence-rows and the borders of
settlements. It is 3 to 6 feet high, with coarse, rough, grayish
10 The Shrubs of North Carolina
unsightly leaves, which are 4 to 5 inches long and round-toothed
on the edges. But in Winter the numerous clusters of light-
purplish berries which encircle the summit of the branches at
regular intervals for 12 or 18 inches, give it a very striking and
pleasing appearance. These berries are juicy, slightly aromatic
and sweetish, and are sometimes eaten, but are probably not very
Mistletoe. (Phoradendron flavescens, Nutt.) — Well known
throughout the State, and needing no description. With us it
seems to prefer the Oaks and Locust, but at the North and West,
Elms and Hickories. Deer are very fond of this plant. This is
a different plant from the European Mistletoe, the aureus ramus
1. High Blackberry. (Rubus villosus, Ait.) — This is our
common Blackberry of the swamps and fallow lands, 4 to 10 feet
high, and the leaves slightly hairy or smooth, and green on both
sides. It is found throughout the State. The root of this is
slightly astringent, and is a popular remedy for diarrhoea.
2. Low Blackberry. (R. cuneifolius, Pursh.) — Common in
old fields and by road sides in the Lower and Middle Districts,
2 to 4 feet high, the leaves white and downy beneath. Smaller in
all parts than No. 1, the berries generally sweeter.
3. Dewberry. (R. trivialis, Michx.) — Generally well known
under this name, but most abundant in the Middle District. This
is a trailing species with smooth green leaves, growing mostly in
dry soils, and with larger, sweeter fruit than the preceding.
4. Swamp Blackberry. (R. hispidus, Linn.) — A prostrate
species like the preceding, found in the mountain swamps, but
every way more delicate, with thinner leaves, and with weak
prickles that hardly deserve the name. Fruit black, small and
5. Black or Purple Raspberry. (R. occidentals, Linn.) —
Grows on the borders of woods and in thickets through the
Middle District. The fruit is very pleasant but rather dry, and
much inferior to the cultivated species.
6. Flowering Raspberry. (R. odoratus, Linn.) — Found only
in the mountains along rivulets and in cool, shaded ravines. This
is without prickles, but is covered with clammy hairs, is 4 to 5
feet high, and has leaves 6 to 7 inches long, divided into about 5
short segments. The flowers are quite ornamental, about 2 inches
broad and looking like a small single Rose. The fruit is broad,
red and dry, but pleasant flavored.
The Shrubs of North Carolina 11
1. Swamp Rose. (Rosa Carolina, Linn.) — This is from 3 to
6 feet high, is generally confined to low damp grounds, and has
stout, hooked prickles.
2. Wild or Dwarf Rose. (R. lucida, Ehrh.) — Generally pre-
fers dry soils, and is found in all the Districts. It is about half
the size of No. 1, has the leaves shining on the upper side, and has
straight prickles, which will distinguish it from the preceding.
3. Sweet Brier. (R. rubiginosa, Linn.) — Extensively natu-
ralized along roads and about settlements, especially in the
Middle District, and easily recognized by the pleasant fragrance
derived from the rusty colored glands on the underside of the
leaves. This is sometimes known as the Eglantine.
4. Cherokee Rose. (R. laevigata, Michx.i) — Cultivated in the
Lower and Middle Districts, often trained over fences, and, if
well managed, serves well for hedging. It is remarkable for its
smooth, dark, evergreen leaves and white single flowers. It is
singular that the native region of this Rose is unknown.
1. Elder. (Sambucus Canadensis, Linn.) — There is no por-
tion of the State, except the higher parts of the Mountains, where
this shrub is not found. Its leaves are smooth and its berries
dark purple. The inner bark is of popular use in ointments for
sores. An infusion of the leaves is sometimes used for expelling
insects from vines, &c. An infusion of the dried flowers is a
domestic remedy for colds. The ripe berries afford a delicate test
for detecting acids and alkalies.
2. Red-Berried Elder. (S. pubens, Michx.) — Grows only on
the higher Mountains above the range of the preceding, from
which it is at once distinguished by its red berries and the downy
underside of its leaves. It belongs chiefly to a high latitude.
1. Black Haw. (Viburnum prunifolium, Linn.) — Common
in rather dry rich soils from the coast to the lower part of the
Upper District, 8 to 15 feet high, handsome when in flower. The
blossoms are small, white, in flat clusters, which are two or three
inches broad, and destitute of a common stem. The leaves, 1 or
2 inches long, are smooth and shining above. The fruit is about
half an inch long, bluish-black, sweetish and eatable.
2. Possum Haw. (V. nudum, Linn.) — Has a similar range
with No. 1, and grows in cold swampy grounds, 6 to 12 feet high.
The flower-clusters in this are supported on a short common-
stem. The leaves are larger and of thicker texture than in the
former, dull green above, and covered with rusty scales beneath.
The fruit is a deep blue. In the Mountains I have heard this
called Shawnee Haw.
12 The Shrubs of North Carolina
There is a form of this (var: angustifolium), with smaller,
narrower, and brighter leaves, which I have met with in Hender-
3. (V. obovatum, Walt.) — A shrub or small tree, growing on
the banks of streams, but not common in this State. The leaves
are 1/2 to 1 inch long, rather thick, smooth, broader at the upper
end, and faintly toothed. The flower-clusters are without a
general stem. The fruit is black.
4. Sheep Berry. (V. Lentago, Linn.) — Found only in the
Mountains, 10 or 15 feet high. The leaves are rather thin, 3 to
4 inches long, smooth, with a tapering point, sharply toothed,
their stem and middle nerve beneath, together with the flower
branches, sprinkled with rusty atoms. The fruit is first red, then
bluish-black, and is eatable when fully ripe.
5. Arrow-wood. (V. dentatum, Linn.) — Grows in low
grounds of the Lower and Middle Districts, but is not very com-
mon. It is 8 to 12 feet high, with ash-colored bark, and by the
flowers and fruit would be at once recognized as belonging to the
same genus as Nos. 1 and 2. The leaves are roundish, 2 or 3
inches long, coarsely and sharply toothed, thin and smooth, the
lateral veins quite straight, and deeply impressed above. The
fruit is roundish and deep blue, and slightly rough. The young
straight branches of this were used by the Indians for making
6. Downy Arrow-wood. (V. pubescens, Pursh.) — Very
similar to No. 5, but smaller, 3 or 4 feet high, the underside of
the leaves downy, and growing only in the rocky soil of the
7. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood. (V. acerifolium, Linn.) — A
shrub 2 to 5 feet high, found in the Mountains and on rocky hills
of the Middle District, as low down as Orange, with leaves 3 or
4 inches long, shaped like those of a Maple. The berries are
whitish, becoming purplish-black. The slender stems, by remov-
ing the pith, make good fuse-sticks for blasting, and will serve
equally well for blasts of tobacco-smoke.
8. Hobble-Bush. Tangle-Legs. (V. lantanoides, Michx.) —
A small straggling shrub found in cold, damp places in the Moun-
tains. The branches spread upon the ground, and, taking root at
their ends, form well secured loops for tripping the feet of inex-
perienced wayfarers; a habit which has been revenged upon by
the unlucky, in the names imposed upon it of American Way-
farer's Tree and the Devil's Shoe-strings. The leaves are 3 to 6
inches broad, heart-shaped, very veiny, the underside having a
rusty down. The berries are first crimson, then black. The
The Shrubs of North Carolina 13
flowers on the margin of the broad clusters of this species are
very large (by abortion), like those of the well-known Snow-ball
of our Gardens, which is a species (V. Opulus) of this genus.
Prickly Ash. (Aralia spinosa, Linn.) — Found in tolerably
rich soil from the coast to Cherokee, but not very abundant in
any locality. It is seldom 20 feet high with us, and is remark-
able for its straight, club-shaped, prickly stem or trunk, with the
compound leaves spreading like those of a Palm from its summit.
An infusion of the fresh bark of the root is emetic and cathartic,
and is employed, as are also the berries, in spiritous infusion, in
rheumatic affections. These are thought by some to be also a
valuable remedy for the bite of a rattlesnake.
Privet. (Ligustrum vulgare, Linn.)— Occasionally natu-
ralized about settlements. Berries black. This is suited for low
1. Spice Bush. (Benzoin odoriferum, Nees.) — Known also as
Spice Wood, Wild Allspice, and Fever Bush. Grows in damp
woods throughout the State, and, wherever found, known under
one or other of these names. It is a strongly scented shrub,
smooth, 3 to 6 feet high, with dark red berries, and leaves 3 or 4
inches long. An infusion of the twigs is sometimes used in
country fevers, and for sickly cattle in the Spring.
2. (B. melissaefolium, Nees.) — Belongs to the Lower and Mid-
dle Districts in low grounds and on the borders of shallow ponds,
2 or 3 feet high, leaves silky on both sides, 1 or 2 inches long,
slightly heart-shaped; berries red. I am indebted to Dr. McRee
and Prof. Mitchell for my knowledge of this species.
Pond Bush. (Tetranthera geniculata, Nees.) — Occupies small
ponds in the Lower District, giving a gray smoky aspect to these
localities. It is rarely met with in the lower part of the Middle
District. It is 10 or 15 feet high, with smooth, zigzag branches,
and small oval leaves, % to 1 inch long, and red berries.
This and the genus next preceding are closely related to the
Sassafras, and, like it, have small yellowish flowers which appear
before the leaves.
Leather-wood. (Dirca palustris, Linn.) — Widely diffused
over the country, but in this State occurring sparingly upon
shaded rivulets in the Middle and Upper Districts. It is 3 to 5
feet high, and the branches have such a tough and pliable bark
that they make excellent ligatures, for which they were used by
the Indians, and from which the shrub derives its name. The
fruit is a small reddish berry.
14 . The Shrubs of North Carolina :
Carolina Buckthorn. (Frangula Caroriniana, Gray.) — A
thornless shrub, 4 to 6 feet high, belonging to moderately fertile
soils in the Middle and Lower Districts, but rare in the latter.
The leaves are 3 or 4 inches long, 1 or 2 wide, dark green, smooth
and shining, and ribbed with very straight parallel veins. The
berry is blackish, of the size of a small pea.
1. Sumach. (Rhus copallina, Linn.) — Very common through-
out the State, usually 6 to 10 feet high, sometimes a small tree 15
feet high, readily distinguished by its common leaf-stem being
margined or winged between the leaflets. The crimson hairs on
the berries possess a strong acid, (said to be Malic,) an infusion
of which, with sugar, makes an agreeable cooling beverage, and,
without sugar, is a very useful gargle for weak or sore throats.
2. Smooth Sumach. (R. glabra, Linn.) — This is 6 to 10 feet
high, growing in the Middle and Upper Districts, and is remark-
ably smooth in all its parts. A milky juice issues from the
wounded bark. The large clusters of red fruit are more compact
than in No. 1, having an acid secretion as in that. The branches
and leaves are astringent, and are used for tanning.
3. Staghorn Sumach. (R. typhina, Linn.) — Belongs to the
Upper District, 10 to 20 feet high, the branches and flower stalks
densely and rather softly hairy, somewhat like a Deer's horn "in
the velvet." The leaflets are narrow and tapering. The bark
issues a milky juice, and the berries are acid, as in No. 2. The
wood is orange colored and aromatic. The bark and branches are
used for tanning. The large clusters of purple fruit, and a fine
foliage, render this species quite ornamental.
4. Dwarf Sumach. (R. pumila, Michx.) — This has a general
resemblance to No. 3, especially in the dense hairiness of the
young branches, but the leaflets in this are much shorter, broader
and more coarsely toothed, and the plant is only 1 to 3 feet high,
mostly spreading over the ground. It is rather rare, but occurs
in the Lower and Middle Districts, especially in Mecklenburg,
where it was originally discovered by the elder Michaux. Pursh
has represented it as being very poisonous, but it is perfectly
harmless, as are all the preceding species.
5. Poison Sumach. (R. venenata, DC.) — Found in all the
Districts in cool swampy situations, where it is somewhat con-
spicuous by its smooth green bark and pink-colored leaf -stems.
To most persons it is exceedingly poisonous, some even being
affected by proximity to it, especially while rain or dew is evap-
orating from it. Others, however, can handle it with safety.
The juice of this is a good varnish, like that of the Japan Sumach
(R. vernicifera) , which is a very similar and was once supposed
to be the same species.
The Shrubs of North Carolina 15
6. Poison Oak. (R. Toxicodendron, Linn.) — A small shrub,
1 to 2 feet high, well known by this name from the coast to the
lower part of the Upper District. It is less poisonous than No. 5,
but is too mischievous to be meddled with by persons who are
sensitive to this class of poisons. The juice is an indelible ink
It has been stated very positively in some quarters that the
dreaded disease, known in our Mountains and at the West by the
name of Milk Sickness, is caused by the cattle eating of this
Poison Oak. But our Lower and Middle Districts abound. in this
plant, where this disease is not now heard of, while in those
portions of the Mountains where cattle are affected with it, and
which I have examined with special reference to ascertaining its
origin, this plant is not found, nor any other poisonous plant
which is not common elsewhere. Besides, it is well known that
cattle do not take the disease if kept from those grounds till the
dew has evaporated. Its cause is yet a mystery, but I am satis-
fied it is telluric.
The Mountain Tea or Winter green, (Gaultheria procumbens,
Linn.) so well known in the Mountains, rarely in the other Dis-
tricts, for its aromatic spicy leaves and berries, is an evergreen
shrub, but so small that it would not generally be considered
The next two genera have a fleshy fruit, but too large to come
under the class of Berries. They are well known by their names.
1. Papaw. (Asimina triloba, Dunal.) — Not uncommon in
rich bottom lands of the Middle District, 10 to 15 feet high, but
in the primitive soil of the Western States sometimes 30 feet..
The flowers are dull dark-purple, over an inch wide. The fruit is
about 3 inches long by 11/2 thick, yellow, and filled with a soft
sweet pulp which is edible, but does not seem to be agreeable to
most persons. The bark of the trunk and root exhales a very
heavy unpleasant odor. The wood is remarkably light and
2. Dwarf Papaw. (A. parviflora, Dunal.) — A small shrub
similar to No. 1, but smaller every way, found in waste grounds
in the Lower District', and in thin woods of the Middle and lower
part of the Upper District. It is from 2 to 5 fet high, the leaves
4 to 6 inches long, (about half the size of the preceding,) the
greenish-purple flowers V2 i ncn l° n g an d of unpleasant odor.
Fruit in clusters, about an inch long.
1. Spanish Bayonet. (Yucca aloifolia, Linn.) — A native of
the coast from North Carolina southward, frequently cultivated
in the Lower District, and very showy when capped by its large
16 The Shrubs of North Carolina
cluster of white bell-shaped flowers. It is 4 to § feet high, its stiff
leaves (12 or 18 inches long) tipped with a very sharp thorny
point, and their edges very rough.
2. (Y. gloriosa, Linn.) — Found also on the sandy coast, similar
to the preceding, but smaller, and the leaves smooth on the
3. Bear Grass. (Y. filamentosa, Linn.) — Common in sandy
fields nearly throughout the State, well known by the thread-like
filaments on the edges of the leaves, and admired for the beauty
of its flowers, borne in clusters upon a naked stem 4 to 6 feet
The two next genera would be most generally ranked among
Stone-fruit, though the shell of the second is very thin, and
covered by a very thin flesh.
Fringe Tree. (Chionanthus Virginica, Linn.) — Sometimes
called Old Man's Beard. We have no shrub of softer and more
delicate beauty than this, when draped in its clusters of snow-
white, fringe-like flowers. It is found northward to southern
Pennsylvania. In this State it grows in all the Districts, but
most abundantly in the Middle. It is sometimes 15 to 20 feet
high, but flowers at the height of 2 or 3 feet. Its fruit has the
appearance and odor of a green plum, but I have never seen it
produce fruit in the Lower District. An infusion of the roots is
a favorite remedy in long standing intermittents and other
Oil-nut. Buffalo Tree. (Pyrularia oleifera, Gray.) — A
bush 3 to 6 feet high, abundant through our mountain range, and
reaching north to the mountains of Pennsylvania. The leaves
are 3 to 4 inches long, becoming smooth, rather acrid to the
taste, and oily. The fruit is an inch or more long, pear-shaped
or roundish, with a thin shell and large oily kernel. The root has
an unpleasant odor.
The remaining Shrubs, including those with Nuts, are Dry-
fruited and very various. The first Group will include such as
have dry seed-covers, containing small seeds and opening by
partitions. The first three genera have tubular small flowers
like those of the Huckleberry and Sorrel Tree.
1. Fetter-Bush. (Andromeda nitida, Bartr.) — Found only
in the Lower District in low Pine barrens. It is 2 to 5 feet high,
with the branches three-angled, smooth throughout; the leaves
evergreen and shining and rather thick, 1 to 2 inches long, not
toothed ; the flowers clustered in the forks of the leaves, white or
reddish, with a sort of honey odor, opening in March and April.
The Shrubs of North Carolina 17
2. Stagger-Bush. (A. Mariana, Linn.) — Grows in the Lower
and Middle Districts, on the margin of low grounds. It is 2 to 3
feet high and smooth. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, not
toothed, dull green ; the flowering branches generally destitute of
leaves; the flowers in clusters along the branches, near i/i inch
long, white and showy, opening in April and May.
3. (A. speciosa, Michx.) — A very handsome shrub growing in
low wet grounds of Pine barrens in the Lower District, 2 to 5
feet high and smooth. The leaves are 1 to IV2 i ncn long, toothed,
dull green, sometimes covered on the underside with a very white
bloom. The flowering branches are free from leaves, 6 to 12
inches long and very showy. The flowers are larger than in No.
2, more bell-shaped, opening in May.
4. Pepper-Bush. (A. ligustrina, Muhl.) — This occurs in all
the Districts, but only in the lower part of the Upper. It is 3 to
4 feet high, somewhat hairy. The leaves are about 2 inches long,
sharp pointed, finely toothed, paler underside. The flowers are
small, almost globular, scurfy, in small clusters that are leafy.
5. (A. floribunda, Pursh.) — Rather rare, and belonging to the
mountains, 4 to 8 feet high, the younger branches reddish and
covered with scattered stiff hairs and glandular dots. The leaves
are 1 to l 1 /) inch long, evergreen and rigid, rounded at base,
sharp at top, minutely scalloped, the youngest with short hairs
on the margin ; flowers in crowded leafy clusters.
1. Dog Laurel. (Leucothoe Catesbsei, Gray.) — Found only in
the mountains, where it is also called Hemlock, growing on the
cool margins of streams. It is 2 to 4 feet high, the leaves ever-
green, 3 to 5 inches long and 1 inch broad, with a long tapering
point, prickly-toothed on the edges. Clusters of flowers in the
forks of the leaves. A very pretty shrub.
2. (L. axillaris, Don.) — On the borders of streams and wet
places in the Lower District, and very much like No. 1. But the
leaves are less prickly-toothed, less tapering, 2 to 3 inches long,
broader than in the preceding, the clusters of flowers longer, and
the flowers longer.
3. (L. racemosa, Gray.) — Grows from the coast to the base of
the mountains, 4 to 8 feet high, on the borders of w r et places.
The leaves are rather thin, acute, finely toothed, 1 to IV2 inch
long. The flowers (1/2 inch long) are on terminal straight
branchlets, all hanging to one side, and looking like rows of teeth,
the rows being 2 or 3 inches long.
4. (L. recurva, Gray.) — Discovered by Mr. Buckley in the
mountains near Paint Rock. It is 3 to 4 feet high, the leaf and
flower-branches recurved; the leaves broader and more hairy
18 The Shrubs of North Carolina
than in No. 3, rounded at base, finely toothed, 'scarcely tapering,
2 to 3 inches long, deciduous as in No. 3.
(Cassandra calyculata, Don.) — A small shrub, 2 to 3 feet high,
growing in damp grounds of the Lower District, and not unlikely
in the others. The evergreen leaves are about 1 inch long, 1/3 inch
wide, finely toothed, rather stiff, and covered, like the young
branches, with small white scales. The flowers are on terminal
branchlets, quite small, solitary in the forks of small leaves.
1. Laurel. (Rhododendron maximum, Linn.) — This is rare
north of Pennsylvania, but becomes abundant southward in the
Alleghanies, and is common through their whole range in this
State, where it often forms impenetrable thickets, many acres in
extent. It also grows upon rocky hills in the Middle District as
far east as Orange. Its usual height is 8 to 10 feet, but is some-
times as high as 20 feet. This is a production of great beauty
and universally admired. The flowers, about an inch broad,
grow in compact clusters on the ends of the branches, and are
generally of a pale rose color, but sometimes whitish, dotted with
green and yellow on the inside. These contrast pleasingly with
the large thick evergreen leaves. The leaves and flowers are
reputed poisonous. The wood is very hard and fine grained, but
not equal to that of Ivy.
2. Oval-Leaved Laurel. (R. Catawbiense, Michx.) — This
splendid Laurel is chiefly confined to the highest summits of our
mountains, but is said to extend somewhat into Virginia. It is
often confounded with the preceding, but besides its different
locality, growing only on the tops of such mountains as the Roan
in Yancey and Negro Mountain in Ashe, it blossoms earlier than
the other, though at a higher elevation, has larger and more in-
tensely colored flowers, and shorter and broader leaves. It is 5
to 8 feet high, and handsomer than No. 1. It stands cultivation
pretty well in the Middle District.
3. Dwarf Laurel. (R. punctatum, Andr.) — A rusty looking
shrub, 1 to 2 feet high, chiefly confined to the mountains of North
Carolina and Georgia. It has a strong family likeness to the
other species, but is too inferior to them in every respect to
attract or deserve much attention. I have met with it only on
Table Rock, Jonas' Ridge and Whiteside Mountain.
1. Smooth Honeysuckle. (Azalea arborescens, Pursh.) —
Found only along water courses in the lower part of the Upper
District, and is 4 to 10 feet high. It is similar to the next, a
common and well known species ; but this has smooth branchlets,
leaves of brighter green above, and long calyx appendages at the
base of the flower. The flowers are white and roseate, and their
The Shrubs of North Carolina 19
odor may be perceived at a great distance; this being the most
powerfully fragrant of our Honeysuckles. For cultivation this
will rank next in beauty to the Yellow Honeysuckle.
2. Clammy Honeysuckle. (A. viscosa, Linn.) — Very com-
mon through the State, 2 to 6 or 8 feet high, the branchlets
bristly, and the flowers covered with clammy hairs. The flowers
are white or flesh-colored and very fragrant. In this and No. 1
the flowers appear after the leaves have expanded. In the next
two species they appear before or with the leaves.
A variety of this (var: glauca) occurs with paler and rougher
leaves, their underside covered with a white bloom.
3. Purple Honeysuckle. (A. nudiflora, Linn.) — Very com-
mon in great varieties of soil through the State, 2 to 6 feet high,
but usually very small in poor dry soils.- The flowers vary from
a flesh-color to pink or purple, and are sometimes quite white.
They are destitute of fragrance.
4. Yellow Honeysuckle. (A. calendulacea, Michx.) — This
is found only at a considerable elevation on our mountains, where
it is abundant and well known by the name here given. It is com-
monly from 3 to 6 feet high, and varies very much in the color of
its flowers, but most frequently they are some shade of yellow.
Bartram, in his "Travels," calls this the Fiery Azalea, and says :
"This epithet Fiery I annex to this most celebrated species of
Azalea, as being expressive of the appearance of its flowers,
which are in general of the color of the finest red lead, orange
and bright gold, as well as yellow and cream color. These
various splendid colors are not only in separate plants, but fre-
quently all the varieties and shades are seen in separate branches
on the same plant, and the clusters of blossoms cover the shrubs
in such incredible profusion on the hillsides, that suddenly open-
ing to view from dark shades, we are alarmed with the appre-
hension of the woods being set on fire. This is certainly the most
gay and brilliant flowering shrub yet known."
1. Ivy. (Kalmia latifolia, Linn.) — A beautiful shrub known
from New England to Georgia, either by the above name, or as
Laurel, Mountain Laurel and Calico Bush. In this State it is
known under the first and last names, the first being most in use.
It is most abundant in the mountains, but is found along streams
and on rocky hills of the Middle District, extending somewhat
into the Lower, even into the Dismal Swamp. This, in combi-
nation with the Laurel, which often accompanies it and blossoms
at the same time, presents a scene of floral beauty rarely equaled
in this country. Like the Laurel, this is an evergreen, and forms
also impenetrable thickets, but its leaves are shining, much
darker and smaller. It is 10 to 15 and even 20 feet hierh.
20 The Shrubs of North Carolina
The leaves are poisonous to cattle, and a snuff made from them
is a powerful sternutatory. An ointment made from the pow-
dered leaves has been successfully used for scald heads. The
wood, particularly of the roots, is exceedingly hard, fine-grained,
marked with red lines, and capable of a good polish. We have
hardly any wood better adapted for the handles of tools, small
screws, and similar articles. This and the Laurels can be raised
2. Wicky. (K. angustifolia, Linn.) — This has an extensive
range over the United States. In this State it is common on the
small Pine-barren swamps of the Lower Districts, but is rare in
the others. It is 1 to 3 feet high ; the leaves are 1 to 2 inches long
and !/2 i ncn wide, pale green, paler underneath; the flowers
roseate or crimson, about 1/2 i ncn broad, being one-third the size
of the preceding, but of the same elegant form, and growing in
clusters along the branches. This is a beautiful undershrub and
is greatly improved by cultivation. It is a poisonous plant,
especially to sheep, and is in some places called Sheep Laurel. A
decoction of the leaves is a domestic remedy for cutaneous dis-
eases in man and beast.
3. (K. cuneata, Michx.) — Similar to the Wicky, found in the
Lower District, but very rare. It may be distinguished from
that by the flowers being white at top and red at bottom, and by
the leaves being scattered along the branches, instead of grow-
ing in circles of three, as in No. 2.
Sand Myrtle. (Leiophyllum buxifolium, Ell.) — A small ever-
green shrub, 6 to 12 inches high, looking somewhat like the
Garden Box, with small, dark green leaves, and small white
flowers clustered on the ends of the branches. It grows in sandy
woods of Brunswick County, and on the rocky summits of our
mountains, from the Grandfather to Whiteside.
False Heath. (Menziesia globularis, Salisb.) — Common on
the higher mountains, 3 to 6 feet high, with thin, hairy, deciduous
leaves, and small, reddish, bell-shaped flowers, like those of a
Huckleberry, and a small, woody seed-vessel, like those of Andro-
1. White Alder. Sweet Pepper-Bush. (Clethra alnifolia,
Linn.) — Grows near damp places in the Lower and Middle Dis-
tricts, 2 to 4 feet high. The leaves are a little like those of the
common Alder, but are smaller and narrower. The flowers are
small, white, and very fragrant, terminating the branches in
racemes which are 2 to 3 inches long. A form of this (var:
tomentosa) has leaves with a white down on the underside.
The Shrubs of North Carolina 21
2. Mountain Pepper-Bush. (C. acuminata, Michx.) — Quite
an ornamental shrub, 10 to 15 feet high, growing in the moun-
tains from Ashe to Cherokee. Its leaves are thin, pointed, fine-
toothed, and 5 to 6 inches long. The racemes of white flowers
are larger than in No. 1, and drooping.
(Itea Virginica, Linn.) — At a little distance this has some re-
semblance to the White Alder, but with a smoother aspect, and
the flowers are not fragrant. It belongs to the borders of wet
places from the coast to Lincoln, is 4 to 8 feet high, and has small
white flowers in drooping racemes, which are 3 to 5 inches long
on the ends of the branches.
1. Wild Hydrangea. (Hydrangea arborescens, Linn.) — A
smooth shrub, 2 to 5 feet high, growing along streams and on
mountain and hill sides of the Upper and Middle Districts. The
leaves are 3 to 5 inches long, heart-shaped, pointed, toothed. The
flowers are whitish, in flat-topped clusters, some of those on the
margin being large and showy like those of, the cultivated Hy-
2. Snowy Hydrangea. (H. radiata, Walt.) — Found only on
the mountains west of the Blue Ridge from Yancey to Georgia.
North of this it has not, I think, been detected. It is from 3 to 6
or 8 feet high. The leaves are heart-shaped, 4 to 6 inches long,
the underside clothed with a thick, silvery-white down. The
barren flowers, which give this genus the peculiarity for which it
is admired, are in this species found only around the border of
the flat-topped cluster, but are said to become much more
abundant in cultivation. They are of a pure white, an inch or
more broad. This pretty shrub would be much prized in gardens,
if there were not some more showy species in cultivation.
1. Syringa. (Philadelphus grandiflorus, Wild.) — This very
ornamental shrub, now common in our yards and gardens, prized
for its graceful, slender branches and snow-white flowers, does
not appear to be abundant in this State. I am acquainted with
but a single locality of it, which is in Hickory Nut Gap ; though
it is doubtless to be found along other streams in the upper part
of the State. It is 6 to 10 feet high, the leaves about 2 inches
long, pointed, with few distant teeth, rather soft and hairy, and
tasting somewhat like Cucumbers. The flowers are an inch or
2. Rough Syringa. (P. hirsutus, Nutt.) — Every way smaller
than No. 1, the leaves quite rough on the upper side and whitish-
downy beneath. This grows on the French Broad River, a few
miles below Asheville.
22 The Shrubs of North Carolina
1. Mock Orange. (Sty rax grandifolia, Ait.) — A very beauti-
ful shrub, 3 to 12 feet high, with rather large leaves, 3 to 6 inches
long, and of a grayish aspect from the presence of a whitish down
on their underside. The flowers are from 15 to 20 on loose
nodding racemes, white, very fragrant, in size and form very
similar to those of the Orange. It grows on light rich soils in the
Lower and Middle Districts, as far west as Lincoln. This is well
worthy of a place in shrubberies, but has received but little
2. (S. Americana, Lam.) — Distinguished from No. 1 by its
smooth, green leaves, 1 or 2 inches long, and smaller flowers, only
3 or 4 on a raceme. It is 4 to 8 feet high, not inelegant, but of
inferior beauty to the other, and grows on the borders of swamps
in the Lower District.
1. Bush Honeysuckle. (Diervilla trifida, Msench.) — A
small, rather delicate shrub, 3 to 5 feet high, with pointed toothed
leaves which are 3 or 4 inches long, and have short foot-stalks.
The flowers are in clusters of (generally) 3 in the forks of the
upper leaves, greenish yellow, and funnel-shaped, like those of
the Woodbine. This is found only in the mountains.
2. (D. sessilifolia, Buckley.) — Like the preceding, but larger
in several particulars, and the leaves clasp the branches, being
destitute of a foot-stalk. Found in the mountains.
1. Strawberry Bush. (Euonymus Americanus, Linn.) — A
shrub 2 to 5 feet high, found in all the Districts, and known by
the names of Burning Bush, Fish-ivood, and Bursting Heart, be-
sides the one first given. The branches are square, straight but
flexible, very smooth, and about as green as the leaves. The
flowers are small, purplish or greenish, and unattractive. The
fruit gives the plant a peculiar beauty, for which chiefly it is
prized in shrubberies. This is of a bright crimson color when
mature, and covered with small warts which give it somewhat
the aspect of a small strawberry. This finally bursts open, ex-
posing its bright scarlet seeds.
2. Burning Bush. (E. atropurpureus, Jacq.) — Every way
larger than the preceding, its flowers dark purple, and the fruit
smooth. I have not met with it, and am indebted to Prof.
Mitchell for my knowledge of it as an inhabitant of this State.
(Stillingia ligustrina, Michx.)- — A shrub with slender spread-
ing branches, 6 to 12 feet high, very rare in this State, and not
found, I think, north of Cape Fear River. The leaves are 1 to 3
inches long, not toothed, the upper end obtuse, tapering at the
lower end, and with a short foot-stalk. For my knowledge of
this plant I am under obligations to Dr. McRee. The Tallow Tree
The Shrubs of North Carolina 23
(S. sebifera), cultivated farther south, and the Queen's Delight
(S. sylvatica), an herbaceous plant of the Pine barrens, are
members of this genus.
1. (Stuartia Virginica, Cav.) — This and the Loblolly Bay are
the only representatives in this country of the admired Camellia
family, and the still more important Tea Plant. It is one of our
most beautiful shrubs, and yet has nowhere, so far as I know,
obtained a popular name. It is found in rich soils in the eastern
half of our Lower District, extending north into Lower Virginia,
and southward to Florida. It is 6 to 15 feet high, blossoming in
April and May. The flowers are white, about the size of the
Cherokee Rose, silky on the outer side, covered on the inner with
a circle of stamens with bright purple filaments and blue
2. (S. pentagyna, L'Her.) — Like the preceding, without a
name. It is similar to the preceding, only its flowers are cream-
colored and its staminate filaments are white. Found in the
Middle and Upper Districts, from Wake to Cherokee. The seecl-
vessel in these two is an ovoid woody capsule.
Toothache Tree. (Zanthoxylum Carolinianum, Lam.) —
Known also by the names of Pellitory and Prickly Ash. The last
name, though more legitimate in this application, is generally
appropriated in this State to another plant before described. It
is a small branching tree, 12 to 20 feet high, the old bark covered
with prickles, and peculiar to the southern sea-coast. The bark,
leaves, and fruit are aromatic and intensely pungent, producing
a rapid secretion of saliva, and are a popular and useful appli-
cation for toothache. They would probably be generally service-
able as a counter irritant.
1. Hardhack. (Spiraea tomentosa, Linn.) — An erect branch-
ing pretty shrub, 2 or 3 feet high, common in low wet places of
the Lower and Middle Districts, and the lower part of the Upper.
The leaves are 1 to 11/2 inch long, oblong, coarse-toothed, the
under side coated with a rusty-white down. The flowers are
rose-colored, small, clustered on the ends of the branches in a
compound raceme 3 or 4 inches long.
2. Queen of the Meadow. (S. salicifolia, Linn.) — This is
similar to No. 1, and sometimes called Meadow Stveet, but is
taller and the flowers generally white. The leaves are larger,
smoother and thinner. It belongs to damp bushy places in the
Middle District, and in valleys and along streams in the lower
part of the Upper.
3. Nine Bark. (S. opulifolia, Linn.) — this is found upon
river banks in the western part of the State, 6 to 10 feet high,
24 The Shrubs of North Carolina
with slender curved branches, often spreading like a vine over
other shrubs, and covered with a profusion' of flat clusters of
small, white, but not showy flowers. Leaves about 2 inches long
and broad, divided into 3 segments, and coarsely toothed. The
reddish fruit is membranaceous, composed of 3 to 5 sacs united
at base. The old bark peels off in thin layers.
Yellow Root. (Zanthorhiza apiifolia, L'Her.) — A small
shrubby plant, 1 or 2 feet high, generally spreading on the
ground, found on moist rocky hillsides of the Middle and Upper
Districts. The leaves are dark green and divided somewhat like
those of Parsley. The flowers are small, dark purple, in loose
slender clusters, appearing before the leaves. The roots are in-
tensely bitter, of a yellow color, and were used by the Indians in
making a yellow dye.
Red Root. (Ceanothus Americanus, Linn.) — Common in dry
woods from the coast to the mountains, 1 to 3 feet high, and the
ends of the numerous small branches having loose clusters (1 or
2 inches long) of small white flowers supported on white foot-
stalks. The leaves are 1 or 2 inches long, sharply toothed, and
have 3 prominent veins. The root is dark red and qufte astrin-
gent, and is frequently used in infusion, tincture, or powder,
where astringency is required. It is said also to furnish a dye of
a cinnamon color. The dried leaves served as a substitute for
Tea during the Revolution, and hence got the name of New Jersey
Tea. It is said to be quite as good as some of the Black Teas.
1. Indigo Bush. (Amorpha fruticosa, Linn.) — A very pretty
shrub, 6 to 15 feet high, growing upon streams in all the Dis-
tricts, but more frequent in the Lower. The flowers are small,
dark purple, crowded on spikes which are 3 or 4 inches long and
clustered together. It is said to have been used for the manu-
facture of Indigo, but, I imagine, with not much profit.
2. Dwarf Indigo Bush. (A. herbacea, Walt.) — Like No. 1 in
its whole habit, but only 2 or 3 feet high, of a grayish aspect, and
with the flowers whitish or pale-blue. It is frequent in the
barrens of the Lower District. The leaves in these two species
are pinnate, like those of the Locust and Hickory. The fruit is
a very small pod, sprinkled with glands.
He Huckleberry. (Cyrilla racemiflora, Walt.) — This is an
absurd name, but I have never heard any other. This smooth
shrub inhabits the borders of swamps and branches in the Lower
District, and is 10 to 15 feet high. The leaves are oblong, shin-
ing, 2 to 3 inches long. The small white flowers grow on racemes
that are 3 to 5 inches long, and that are clustered on the ends of
the previous year's growth, and make this quite ornamental. The
The Shrubs of North Carolina 25
bark at the base of the trunk pulverizes naturally, and is much
used as a styptic and in applications to old -ulcers.
(Buckleya distichophylla, Torr.) — A smooth shrub, about 6
feet high, with slender grayish branches, known only upon the
streams of this State that flow westward, as the Pigeon and
French Broad Rivers. Its thin delicate foliage reminds one by
its general aspect of the English and Catalonian Jasmine of our
gardens. The flowers are greenish and inconspicuous. The
fruit is about i/2 i ncn l° n &> growing solitary on the end of a
(Darbya umbellulata, Gray.) — Like the preceding, a very rare
plant, as yet known only in two or three localities in Georgia, and
in the bend of the Catawba, near Lincolnton, in this State. It is
1 to 2 feet high, with opposite branches and leaves, the latter
ovate, acute, entire, 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to 11/2 wide, rounded
at base, and with short foot-stalks. The flowers are small, green-
ish, in a cluster of 3 to 8, which is borne on a foot-stalk in the
forks of the leaves.
Witch Hazel. (Hamamelis Virginica, Linn.) — Well known
by this name through the State. It has the peculiarity of flower-
ing late in the Fall after the leaves have dropped, and maturing
its fruit in the following Spring. Its popular name is derived
from the use made of its branches in discovering hidden springs
of water, minerals, etc. Other kinds, as of the Peach, are indeed
sometimes used for this purpose, but I venture to affirm that none
in the whole vegetable kingdom are better than those of Witch
Dwarf Alder. (Fothergilla alnifolia, Linn.) — Unknown north
of Virginia. In this State it is found from the coast to Lincoln.
In the Lower District it is 1 to 2 feet high, often but a single un-
branched stem, terminated by a tuft of small white flowers be-
fore the leaves appear. It grows here upon the borders of Pine-
barren swamps, and is rarely much branched. In the Middle
District it is found upon rocky hills, is 3 to 5 feet high, forming
a branched straggling shrub. The foliage varies a good deal, so
that several species have been made of it by some authors ; but
the leaves are generally not unlike those of Alder. The fruit is
a hard capsule, like that of Witch Hazel, and, like that, bursting
elastically and expelling the hard bony seeds to a considerable
Sweet Fern. (Comptonia asplenifolia, Ait.) — A small shrub-
by plant, 1 or 2 feet high, with leaves (3 or 4 inches long) much
resembling some of the Ferns, and possessing a grateful aromatic
odor like that of the Wax Myrtle. It is found chiefly on rocky
26 The Shrubs of North Carolina
or gravelly hills of the Upper and Middle Districts, but is oc-
casionally found in dry and sandy woods in the upper part of
the Lower. An infusion of this plant is a popular remedy for
Wax Myrtle. Candle-berry Myrtle. (Myrica cerifera,
Linn.) — A well-known shrub with fragrant leaves, common in
the Lower District, and found in fruit from 1 to 18 feet in
height. The small berry-like nuts, which often hang two or three
years on the branches, are covered with a fragrant wax which
has been used in the manufacture of soap and candles. The
latter burn long and diffuse an agreeable odor. A decoction of
the berries has been used for tetters and similar affections. The
root is said to be a specific for tooth-ache.
1. Hazel Nut. (Corylus Americana, Walt.) — A shrub 4 to 8
feet high, found in our mountains, and extending north to New
England. The nut is much esteemed, but is smaller and harder
shelled than the European Hazel or Filbert (C. Avellana).
2. Beaked Hazel Nut. (C. rostrata, Ait.) — Of similar size
and range with the preceding ; but this has the husk of the fruit
prolonged into a beak or horn, and it extends into the Middle
District as far down as Orange.
The remaining shrubs are so various in their fruit and general
habit, that, to save space, they are here grouped miscellaneously
together, most of them being well known by their popular names.
Button Bush. Box. (Cephalanthus occidentalis, Linn.) —
Common on the borders of streams and swampy grounds in the
Lower and Middle Districts, always easily recognized by its
round head of small white flowers, which is about an inch in
diameter. It is 3 to 4 feet high, and very pretty when in blossom.
The inner bark of the roots is an agreeable bitter, and is used for
relieving obstinate coughs.
1. Shrubby Trefoil. Hop Tree. (Ptelea trifoliata, Linn.) —
A shrub 4 to 8 feet high, belonging to the upper part of the
Middle District, with trifoliate leaves like those of Clover, the
leaflets 2 to 3 inches long, somewhat hairy when young, pale on
the underside. The flowers are small, greenish-white, in rather
flat clusters, heavy-scented, which are succeeded by flat, winged
fruit, like that of the Elm, but an inch broad. The fruit is bitter,
and used as a substitute for Hops.
2. Downy Hop Tree. (P. mollis, M. A. C.) — Every way-
smaller than No. 1, and found only in the Lower District. Its
leaves are more rigid, and the underside covered with a perma-
nent, white, soft, silky down.
The Shrubs of North Carolina 27
Bladder Nut. (Staphylea trifolia, Linn.) — An interesting
shrub, 5 to 10 feet high, with greenish, striped branches, tri-
foliate leaves, the leaflets 2 to 4 inches long, taper-pointed, finely
toothed, and smooth. The small white flowers are gathered into
loose pendulous clusters, which are succeeded by 3-angled
bladder-like pods about two inches long. I have met with this
only near Hillsborough and Chapel Hill, but it is probably to be
found along streams through the Middle District.
1. Sweet Shrub. (Calycanthus floridus, Linn.) — This plant,
now so extensively cultivated, and admired for the rich Straw-
berry odor of its flowers, is a native of the southern Alleghanies.
This species may be known by the soft down on the underside of
the leaves, and on the branchlets, etc. The fruit of this genus is
a sort of thick-skinned, bladdery sac, l!/2 inch long, containing
2. (C. lsevigatus, Willd.) — The leaves of this are taper-pointed,
smooth and green on both sides, sometimes a little rough above
and pale beneath. This is found in the mountains, and in the
Middle District as low down as Orange.
3. (C. glaucus, Willd.) — This is found from Lincoln westward,
and may be recognized by the white under-surf ace of the leaf ; a
little rough on the upper.
1. Alder. (Alnus serrulata, Ait.) — Common on small streams
all over the State, and too well known by the above name to need
2. Mountain Alder. (A. viridis, DC.) — Like the above in
habit and general characters, but the underside of the leaves
covered with a soft gray down. It is known at the South, only
upon the top of Roan Mountain, from whence to northern New
York it is not found. It occurs in Europe.
1. Groundsel. (Baccharis halimifolia, Linn.) — Grows in both
brackish and fresh swampy grounds of the Lower District. It
is 6 to 12 feet high, of an ashy hue from the whitish scales that
cover the bark and leaves. The small flower-heads are solitary,
or a few clustered together, borne on a foot-stalk. The long,
white, silky hairs of the seeds emerging from the heads give the
plant a pleasing appearance in the Fall.
2. (B. glomeruliflora, Pers.) — Like the preceding, but rarer
and less showy, and has larger clusters of flower-heads, destitute
of the foot-stalk.
3. (B. angustifolia, Michx.) — Found in brackish marshes, 4 to
8 feet high. The leaves, which in the other species are half as
broad as long, and toothed, are in this linear and entire.
28 The Shrubs of North Carolina
1. Marsh Elder. (Iva frutescens, Linn.) — A coarse unsightly
shrub of our salt marshes, 4 to 6 feet high. The whole plant is
smoothish, and its leaves lance-shaped, toothed, and about 2
inches long. The flower-heads are greenish and unsightly in the
forks of the small leaves on the terminal branchlets.
2. (I. imbricata, Walt.) — This grows upon the sea-beach, and
is but partly shrubby, 3 or 4 feet high. The leaves are very thick
and fleshy, 1 to li/2 inch long, rarely toothed, and wedge-shaped.
The plant has a strong odor like old honey.
Swamp Loosestrife. (Nessea verticillata, H. B. K.) — A half
shrubby plant found in branch swamps of the Lower District, 4
to 6 feet high, with slerider, curved, 4 to 6-sided stems. The
leaves are 3 or 4 inches long, narrow like those of a Willow,
generally growing around the stem in a circle of three. The
flowers are clustered in the forks of the leaves, about 1/2 inch
wide, purple or roseate, very pretty, reminding one of the blos-
soms of the Lagerstraemia or Crape Tree.
Arbor Vit^e. (Thuja occidentalis, Linn.) — This has its
southern limit on the mountains in the northwestern part of the
State. From thence through the mountains of Virginia it be-
comes more common. It is but a shrub or small tree at the South,
but farther north it attains a height of 50 feet, and its timber is
used in building and for cabinet work.
1. Cane. (Arundinaria gigantea, Chapm.) — This belongs to
the Grass family, but, being of woody texture, falls within our
arrangement. It is 10 to 15 or 20 feet high, found along the river
bottoms of the Cape Fear. I am not aware of its existence north
of that limit. According to Dr. Chapman, "it is simple the first
year, branching the second, afterwards at indefinite periods
fruiting, and soon after decaying." The value of the stems for
fishing-rods is well known.
2. Reed. (A. tecta, Muhl.) — This is the common smaller form,
2 to 10 feet high, and found in low grounds in each District.
This completes the list of the Shrubs of North Carolina, so
far as they are known to me, with the exception of the following,
which are too small and obscure to merit more than a bare
Hypericum. Of this we have five woody species, all with yel-
low flowers, one of which (H. prolificum) is occasionally culti-
vated under the name of Rock Rose.
Ascyrum. Much like the preceding, also with yellow flowers.
Flowering Moss. (Pyxidanthera barbulata, Michx.) — A very
pretty, small, trailing evergreen, with white flowers which ap-
The Shrubs of North Carolina 29
pear in early Spring, and looking somewhat like a Moss in the
absence of blossoms. Belongs to the damp Pine-barrens and Sa-
vannas of the Lower District.
Hudsonia. Only 3 or 4 inches high, also with yellow flowers,
of which no locality is anywhere known but on Table Rock, N. C.
Trailing Arbutus, or Ground Laurel. (Epigsea repens,
Polygonella. In the sandy Barrens about Wilmington.
It may be interesting to append here a comparative view of
the Flora of North Carolina with that of the Northern and
Southern States east of the Mississippi. In Prof. Gray's
"Manual of Botany," which includes the States north of North
Carolina and Tennessee, I find described 130 Trees, 183 Shrubs,
and 30 Vines. In Dr. Chapman's "Flora of the Southern States"
are described 126 Trees, (of which there are 112 in North Caro-
lina,) 224 Shrubs, (176 of them in North Carolina,) and 46
Vines (32 in this State).
THE VINES OF NORTH CAROLINA
These will be grouped according to the character of their
fruit: the first nine genera having Berries- the next five, Pods;
the next three, dry Capsules; and the remaining two, naked
GRAPES. — 1. Summer Grape. [Vitis aestivalis, Michx.] —
Common, as are the other species, excepting the Muscadine, in
most parts of the United States. In this State it is found in all
the Districts, generally near streams, but sometimes in dry
woods, climbing over trees from 30 to 50 feet. The leaves are 4
to 6 inches broad, cut into 3 or 5 divisions, the underside clothed
with a reddish, cobweb-like down when young, which mostly falls
away in the course of the season. The bunches of fruit are com-
pound, 6 to 8 inches long, the berries Ys to i/2 i ncn thick, purplish,
blackish or bluish, with a bloom; very varying in flavor, fre-
quently very fine.
According to H. W. Ravenel, Esq., of Aiken, South Carolina,
who is a good Botanist, as well as a successful cultivator of
Grapes, the following cultivated varieties are descended from
this species: The Warren, Pauline, Herbemont, Guignard, Clin-
ton, Ohio, Marion, Treveling, Long Grape or Old House, Elsin^
borough, Seabrook, and Lenoir. With this last he identifies the
Black July, Devereux, Thurmond, Sumter, and Lincoln Grapes.
I find, however, that there is a difference of opinion in regard to
the identity of the Lenoir and Lincoln varieties ; some maintain-
ing a perceptible difference, the latter being deemed superior to
the other. Dr. C. L. Hunter, of Lincoln, who is paying much
attention to Grape culture, especially of our native varieties,
pronounces the Lenoir ''one of the very best table Grapes," and
recommends its general cultivation. He informs me that this,
as well as the Warren, came from Georgia.
I learn from the same gentleman that the Lincoln Grape was
discovered about the beginning of this century, near the junction
of the South Fork and Catawba, by Dr. Wm. McLean, and that he
transplanted the whole vine near his house. From this stock Mr.
John Hart, of Mecklenburg, derived his, which is still in vigorous
existence. From this last, Dr. Butt, of Lincolnton, obtained his
cuttings, and sent some of the fruit to Longworth, who gave it
the name, now most in use, of the Lincoln Grape, though it was
previously known as the Hart Grape, and McLean Grape.
2. Fox Grape. (V. Labrusca, Linn.) — I have met with this
only in the Middle District, where it is found in damp thickets,
The Shrubs of North Carolina 31
running from 15 to 25 or 30 feet. The leaves are roundish, about
the same size as those of No. 1, but not so much divided, and
covered underneath with a permanent thick down, which is
generally white or gray, rarely of a faint rusty hue. The berries
are larger than in that, being 1/2 to % inch in diameter, in small
bunches, commonly dark purple, but sometimes amber-colored or
whitish, and of various quality, mostly with a musky and rather
The cultivated varieties of this are, according to Mr. Ravenel,
the Isabella, Catawba, Bland's Madeira ^Concord, Diana, Rebecca,
To Kalon, Anna, Mary Isabel, Ontario, Northern Muscadine,
Hartford Prolific, Catawissa, Garrigues, Stetson's Seedling, York
Madeira, Hyde's Eliza, Union Village, Early Chocolate, Harvard,
Early Black, Green Prolific Kilvingion. The first two in the list
are, I believe, the most approved, and most extensively culti-
vated ; both of which are said to have originated in this State.
A foreign origin has been claimed for the Isabella, but this is
an evident error, proved in the fact that seedlings of the Isabella
sometimes revert to our Fox Grape in every particular of leaf
and fruit. This has been tested by Mr. Caradeuc, of South Caro-
lina, as I learn from Mr. Ravenel. But what is regarded as a
scientific demonstration of its American origin, is the fact that
its seedlings sometimes have barren stocks, like all our American
species, which is not the case with any European Grapes. Be-
sides, the Isabella, in its specific characters, comes nearer to our
Fox Grape than to any other.
Dr. Hunter, who has given much attention to the history of our
Grapes, has communicated most of the following items in regard
to the Isabella. Dr. Laspeyre was probably its first cultivator in
the United States, probably as early as 1805, as he sold it in the
Wilmington Market in 1810. Judge Ruffin cultivated it in
Orange County in 1811, under the name of Laspeyre Grape. It
is a tradition that Gov. Smith brought it to Smithville in 1809.
About the year 1810 Mrs. Isabella Gibbs took a rooted cutting
from Gov. Smith's garden to Brooklyn, New York, according to
a current account. According to Dr. Laspeyre, she got the vine
from him. These statements may, in a sort, be reconciled, if
Gov. Smith obtained his stock from Dr. Laspeyre. In 1819, Gen.
Swift bought the Gibbs place, and it was there the elder Prince
first saw and obtained this Grape, which he named the Isabella
in compliment to Mrs. Gibbs. Dr. Hunter has some of these
statements from Gen. Swift. Dr. Laspeyre was under the im-
pression that this, which he called the Black Cape, was one of the
vines which he brought from St. Domingo, but it was probably
the accidental introduction of an American among his foreign
stocks. Dr. Hunter seems to be of opinion that it came to the
32 The Vines of North Carolina
Cape Fear region from South Carolina, according with the tra-
dition mentioned in Dr. Hawks's History.
The Catawba Grape, as I am informed by Dr. Hunter, origi-
nated in Buncombe County on Cain Creek, an affluent of the
French Broad. His views on 'The Origin of the Catawba Grape"
were given last year (1859) in an article for the American
3. Muscadine. (V. vulpina, Linn.) — Known also as Bullace,
Bull Grape, and Bullet Grape, and farther south as Fox Grape;
in Florida, as Mustang Grape. It extends northward as far as
Maryland and Kentucky, from whence southward it is one of the
most common vines. In this State it is found, in various soils,
from the coast to Cherokee, but most luxuriant in light soils of
the Lower District, covering the loftiest trees. The bark is pale
and smooth, that of the smaller branches dotted with minute
warts. The leaves are about 3 inches long, thin, smooth and
shining, coarse-toothed, and nearly round and heart-shaped. The
berries are in small bunches, larger and thicker skinned than any
of our other Grapes, varying in color from whitish through
different shades of red and purple to ebony black. The quality
of the fruit varies as much as its color, being now of a sharp acid
flavor, and again of luscious sweetness.
The Scuppernong, now so famous as a Table and Wine Grape,
is a variety of this species. There are still found in the Lower
and Middle Districts, especially in the former, wild vines bearing
a whitish or amber berry, like the original Scuppernong, but of
various qualities, as in the case with the colored kinds. Some of
them are no better than the commonest Muscadines; and no one
is superior, if equal, to the well known cultivated variety. Some
of the dark Muscadines are very nearly as luscious as the
Scuppernong , and have been brought under culture, as the Mish
Grape, and Alexander's Grape, which are black, and also the
BulUs Eye, so named from its superior size.
The Hickman Grape I take to be identical with the true Scup-
pernong and derived from Tyrrell County, the home of the
original. For some of this information, as well as for the fol-
lowing history of the Scuppernong (proper), I am indebted to
Rev. E. M. Forbes, who has resided in the region and has taken
much pains to obtain an authentic account of this vine. Two
men, of the name of Alexander, while clearing land near Colum-
bia, the county seat of Tyrrell, which stands on the east side of
Scuppernong River, discovered this Grape, and were so much
pleased with it that they preserved the vine and the tree upon
which it grew. "That was the vine which I saw," says Mr.
Forbes, "and from which other vines were propagated." They
The Vines of North Carolina 33
called it the "White Grape," and from it made what they called
"Country Wine/' At the suggestion of a relative, who had been
in the Mediterranean, and knew the indefiniteness of such names
as these, they subsequently named the Grape from the river upon
which it was found. "This is the history given by a grand-
daughter of one of the discoverers, who was alive when I first
went to Scuppernong."
A tradition is furnished me by Dr. Hunter, that, "about the
year 1774, the Rev. Charles Pettigrew found it on the low
grounds of Scuppernong River, and planted out several vines."
My limited space will not permit an exhaustive discussion of this
matter here, and I will, therefore, only remark further upon it,
that the notion of its origination on Roanoke Island seems op-
posed by the name of the Grape. I have also been told by those
who have been on the Island, that there are no vines of it there
which were not evidently transplanted there.
4. Frost Grape. Winter Grape. (V. cordifolia, Michx.) —
Common in thickets along streams through the Middle District.
The leaves are 3 to 5 inches broad, thin, smooth, toothed, and
sometimes cut into three segments. The berries are nearly black,
small, 14 inch thick, and very sour until dead ripe. The berries
are sometimes greenish-white, and Lawson mentions a white
[whitish?] variety. I have not heard of this being cultivated.
5. (V. bipinnata, Torr. & Gr.) — This would not generally be
taken for a member of this genus, either from its leaves, which
are compound, like those of the China Tree, or from its fruit,
which is uneatable. The berries are blackish, slightly hairy, and
about the size of a small pea. It is found in the Lower and
Middle Districts, growing in rich soils, climbing (without ten-
drils) over shrubs and small trees.
Virginia Creeper. (Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Michx.) — This
pretty vine, sometimes cultivated, is found along fence-rows
and borders of woods in all parts of the State. It may be known
by its leaflets growing in fives from the end of a common leaf-
stalk, as in the Buckeye, which is the case with no other of our
Climbers. The foliage becomes crimson in the Fall. The berries
are dark-blue, about the size of a small pea, borne on bright
crimson foot-stalks. The rapidity of its growth renders this
Creeper useful for covering old walls, etc., like the English Ivy.
It is, indeed, sometimes called American Ivy. This is often con-
founded with the Poison Vine, though having very little likeness
to it, and is hence avoided, though it be quite innocent.
1. Woodbine. (Lonicera sempervirens, Ait.) — This beautiful
vine, now common in cultivation, grows from the coast to the
34 The Vines of North Carolina
mountains. The flowers are tubular, 1 to 2 inches long, scarlet
without and yellow within. In rich soils it has a very luxuriant
growth, climbing high into forest trees.
2. Yellow Woodbine. (L. grata, Ait.) — This belongs to the
mountains, and has a flower 1 to li/2 inch long, reddish on the
tubular part, whitish at top, then changing to yellow, somewhat
fragrant. The young branches are often hairy.
3. Small Woodbine. (L. parviflora, Linn.) — Found in the
mountains, less climbing than the others, with flowers about %
inch long, somewhat swollen at the base of the tube, and greenish-
yellow tinged with purple.
I have heard of a yellow species in Gates County, but have
never seen any specimens.
1. Common Bamboo or Green Brier. (Smilax rotundifolia,
Linn.) — Very common in all the Districts, generally in thickets
where the soil is rather fertile, 20 to 40 feet long, the stems and
branches of a yellowish-green color, round, and armed with
strong prickles, the branchlets slightly angled. The leaves are
deciduous, 3 or 4 inches long, roundish and heart-shaped. The
berries, as in most of the species, are bluish-black, borne in
bunches upon a common stalk in the fork of the leaves, and which
is about the same length with the leaf-stalk.
2. (S. tamnoides, Linn.) — A stout prickly vine with angled
branchlets, occurring in the Lower and Middle Districts. The
leaves are somewhat fiddle-shaped or contracted in the middle,
the base sometimes spreading into rounded projections. The
general fruit-stalk is a little flattened, about 1% inch long, and
twice the length of the leaf -stalk.
3. China Root. (S. Pseudo-China, Linn.) — Stout and prickly
like No. 2, 10 to 15 feet long, the branches roundish and not
prickly, and the roots tuberous. The leaves are large, 4 to 7
inches long, ovate, green both sides, the edges and nerves on the
underside roughened with minute prickles. The general fruit-
stalk is flat and 2 or 3 inches long. The berries are blackish and
larger than in the preceding species.
4. Sarsaparilla. (S. glauca, Walt.) — Not uncommon in all
the Districts in cultivated grounds near streams. The stems are
prickly and 2 to 4 feet long. The leaves are ovate, and covered,
especially on the underside, with a white bloom that rubs off
under the finger. The berries are black. The common fruit-
stalk is 2 or 3 times longer than the leaf -stalk. The root of this
is sometimes used in the composition of diet drinks. It is not the
Sarsaparilla of the druggists, but is said to be often mixed with
The Vines of North Carolina 35
5. (S. Walteri, Pursh.) — Stem dark green, angled, 10 to 15
feet long, having prickles only towards the bottom, running over
bushes and up small trees in branch swamps of the Lower Dis-
trict. Leaves deciduous, ovate, heart-shaped, smooth, dark shin-
ing green above, paler beneath, terminating in a small, almost
prickly point, 3 to 4 inches long, 2 to 3 wide, and having 3 distinct
and 2 obscure nerves. The berries are scarlet and very con-
spicuous in Winter. This has a creeping root.
6. (S. lanceolata, Linn.) — This and No. 5 are the only species
with red berries. But this has evergreen leaves, narrower than
in the preceding and acute at base. The branches, too, are not
angled, and the root is tuberous. I have not myself met with it,
and give it on the authority of others.
7. (S. laurifolia, Linn.) — This is a showy species, and like
Nos. 6 and 8, has evergreen leaves. It runs to a great length over
bushes and up lofty trees, the lower part only being prickly. The
leaves are thick and shining, lance-shaped or oblong. The
general fruit-stalk is equal to the leaf -stalk, 1/6 to 1/4 inch long.
Berries black. This seems confined to wet places in the Lower
8. (S. auriculata, Walt.) — Similar to No. 7, slightly or not at
all prickly, growing over small shrubs on the coast, flowers fra-
grant. The leaves are perennial, 1 to 2 inches long, narrowly
ovate, 3 to 5 nerved, with conspicuous cross veins, especially
beneath, terminated by an abrupt almost prickly point. Com-
mon fruit-stalk rather shorter than the leaf-stem. Berries black.
Rattan. Supple Jack. (Berchemia volubilis, DC.) — A very
tough flexible vine running up trees. The leaves are alternate,
1 to 2 inches long, ovate, dark green, very smooth, not toothed,
having prominent parallel unbranched straight veins running
obliquely from the midrib to the margin. The berry is dark
purple, about *4 mcn long, with a thin coat and a hard smooth
nut. Grows from Virginia southward through our Lower Dis-
(Sageretia Michauxii, Brogn.) — Grows upon the sandy soil of
the coast, 6 to 18 feet long, with thorn-like spreading branches.
Leaves 1 inch long, ovate, opposite, smooth and shining, finely
toothed. Flowers very small, in loose clusters. The berry is
small and round, dark purple, and pleasantly acid. I have not
met with this, and have introduced it here on the authority of
(Cocculus Carolinus, DC.) — This runs extensively over shrubs
and small trees on the borders of damp woods and streams, from
the coast to Lincoln. The leaves are 2 to 4 inches long, broadly
36 The Vines of North Carolina
ovate and heart-shaped, sometimes 3 lobed, smooth above, with
a soft gray down underneath. The ripe berries are red, about
the size of a small pea, growing in small clusters, containing a
hard flat nut which is curved nearly into a ring.
Moon Seed. (Menispermum Canadense, Linn.) — This is 6 to
12 feet long, and woody only in the lower part. It is the only one
of our woody Climbers that has the leaf-stalk inserted into the
plate of the leaf instead of the lower edge. The berries are black
and contain a flat nut, as in the preceding species, curved into
the form of a horse shoe. Rare in the Lower District, not un-
Poison Vine. (Rhus radicans, Linn.) — Now considered by
Botanists as only a variety of Poison Oak, but necessarily sepa-
rated in the arrangement I have adopted. It is the only trifoliate
woody Climber we have. Like Poison Oak and Poison Sumach,
very poisonous to some people. Common throughout the State.
The next Group of Climbers, comprising five genera, have
their fruit in dry pods. All of the species are ornamental.
Trumpet Flower. (Tecoma radicans, Juss.) — This splendid
Climber, ascending the loftiest tree, is found from the coast to
the lower part of the mountains, preferring damp rich soils. Its
dark green compound leaves ,and scarlet tubular flowers which
are 2 to 3 inches long, make it an attractive ornament in yards
and gardens. This harmless plant has the reputation, with some,
of being poisonous.
Cross Vine. (Bignonia capreolata, Linn.) — This, like the pre-
ceding, is sometimes called Trumpet Flower. The flowers are of
similar form, about 2 inches long, but are of a duller red on the
outside and yellow within. The leaves are of a dull green, grow-
ing in pairs from the end of a common foot-stalk, each leaflet
also having its own stalk. This does not climb to so great a
height as the other. A cross section of the stem exhibits a por-
tion of its inner structure in the form of a Maltese cross, which
gives the name to this plant. Not uncommon in the Lower and
Virgin's Bower. (Wistaria frutescens, DC.) — This luxuriant,
much admired Climber is found, I think, only in damp rich soils
of the Lower District. It stands cultivation remarkably well in
the Middle District. The leaves are pinnate, like those of the
Locust; and the flowers are of the size and structure of the
Garden Pea, purplish-blue, in large pendent compact clusters 4
to 6 inches long. We have no other woody Vine answering to
these characters. The stem is exceedingly tough and serves well
for withes or ligatures.
The Vines of North Carolina 37
Carolina Jessamine. (Gelsemium sempervirens, Ait.) — No
plant is more common in the Lower District, but it reaches very
little into the Middle. It extends northward into Virginia, but
becomes much more luxuriant as we go south. Its graceful ever-
green leaves, the profusion of its large, bright yellow and de-
liriously fragrant blossoms, render this vine the pride of our
forest. The odor of the flowers in a close room sometimes in-
duces headache. Most of the plant, especially the root, taken
internally, is narcotic and poisonous. A tincture of the root,
judiciously administered, is useful in rheumatic affections; but
in the hands of quacks death has been caused by it.
(Forsteronia difformis, A. DC.) — A smooth twining plant, 6
to 12 feet long, found chiefly in the Lower District, but extending
into the interior as far at least as Wake County. It is sometimes
mistaken for the Yellow Jessamine, but the flowers are tubular
and smaller, more like those of a Woodbine, about 1-3 inch long,
and greenish-yellow. The fruit is a slender pod, containing seeds
that have a tuft of down.
The next Group of three genera have their seeds in small dry
Wax-work. Bittersweet. (Celastrus scandens, Linn.) — This
is to me the rarest plant in the State, as I have seen but a single
stock, near Lincolnton. This is its most southern known limit.
It ascends trees to the height of 12 or 15 feet. The leaves are
about 3 inches long, taper pointed, smooth, toothed. The berry-
like capsule is orange-red, clustered on the ends of its short
branches, of the size of a large pea, bursting when mature and
disclosing 3 to 6 scarlet seeds. In this state it is quite an orna-
(Decumaria barbara, Linn.) — A pretty vine ascending trunks
by means of rootlets insinuated into the bark, after the manner
of the Poison Vine. The leaves are 3 to 4 inches long, broadly
ovate, opposite, rather thick and shining, generally with scattered
teeth towards the upper end. The flowers are small, white and
fragrant, in showy compound clusters on the ends of the
branches, opening in May. This is found in the Lower District
only, and is unknown north of this State.
Wild Ginger. Big Sarsaparilla. (Aristolochia Sipho,
L'Her.) — Found in rich soils all along our mountain rivulets,
climbing over bushes, and sometimes ascending trees. The
stems are occasionally 2 inches thick. The leaves are roundish,
heart-shaped, 8 to 12 inches broad, and slightly downy on the
underside. The flower is coarse, brownish-purple, li/ 2 inch long,
somewhat tubular, with top cut into three segments, below which
38 The Vines of North Carolina
it is contracted and curved like a Dutch pipe, from which, in
some parts of the United States, it has gotten the name of
Dutchman's Pipe. The root is very aromatic and stimulant, like
Ginger, and would serve as a medicine where these properties are
The two remaining genera have naked seeds, which are re-
markable for their long feathered tails.
Virgin's Bower. (Clematis Virginiana, Linn.) — A partly
woody vine, 10 to 15 feet long, climbing over thickets and fences.
It is found from the coast to the mountains, generally near
streams, but is less common in the Lower District. The leaves
are composed of 3 ovate leaflets which are a little cut. The
flowers are in loose clusters, 1/2 to % inch broad, and clothing
the upper part of the vine with a flowing mantle of white. The
flowers are succeeded by heads of feathered seeds which are still
more ornamental than the blossoms.
(Atragene Americana, Sims.) — This is accredited by others to
the mountains of North Carolina, but it has escaped my own
observation. It is a very showy vine, both in fruit and flower,
and, like the preceding, is woody only in its lower parts. It
climbs over rocks and bushes by means of its leaf-stalks. The
leaves are in pairs on opposite sides of the stem, making 4 in a
circle, each long leaf-stalk bearing 3 leaflets. The flowers are
bluish-purple, 2 to 3 inches broad, followed by heads of seeds
which have long feathered tails.
*** /I —
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